Scientific Background and Clinical Validation
Various models of artificial learning systems suggest that errors invoke learning, so learning can be facilitated better and faster if the error is larger. Such error-driven learning processes are believed to be central to the adaptation and acquisition of human movement skills. Enhancing error heightens motivation and attention, makes an error more noticeable to the senses and triggers responses that would otherwise not be perceived.
Motor adaptation studies have demonstrated that when people are repeatedly exposed to a force field that systematically disturbs motion, they learn to anticipate and cancel the related forces, and recover their original kinematic patterns.
Initial movements are pushed by external forces. After a dozen movements, force-based adaptation occurs, by a mechanism that adds the mirror image of the forces to the movement plan as a compensatory response. When the forces are removed, the compensatory response shifts the movement in the opposite direction (aftereffect).For more details: “Adaptation to sensory–motor reflex perturbations”, Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University
Error Enhancement – clinical evidence
A series of research studies was conducted on Northwestern University, in which errors were temporarily magnified to encourage learning. The researchers have proven that significant trajectory improvement occurred only when the training forces magnified the errors, and not when the forces reduced the errors or were not activated by the system. The average reduction in error was 54%, with 70% of the patients retaining theses benefits for the remainder of the experiments.
Similar trials by other researchers yielded similar results:
- “Enhance error rather than reducing it, can stimulate new learning and foster accelerated recovery“ (“Therapist Mediated Post Stroke Rehabilitation Using Haptic/Graphic Error Augmentation“, University of Illinois, 2009).
- error enhancement “Can improve adaptation rates by more than 50%” (“The Binding of Learning to Action in Motor Adaptation”, MIT – Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2011).
- “… showed beneficial aftereffects, average reduction in error of 54%” (“Custom-designed Haptic Training for Restoring Reaching Ability , RIC – Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, 2006).
- “…error-enhancement may have potential to improve walking” (“Error-enhancement Gait Training With a Robotic Exoskeleton”, University of Delaware,2009).
- “Subjects that experienced catastrophic error during practice had much greater performance gains than those that did not” (“Effects of Physical Guidance on Motor Control”, University of Michigan, 2009).
- “Motor learning can be accelerated by exploiting the error-based learning mechanism” (“Robot-Enhanced Motor Learning Accelerating Internal Model Formation”, University of California, 2005).
- “Error amplification can enhance motor recovery and provides a better outcome“. (“Novel methods for the restoration of upper limb and hand motor function”, University of Zurich, 2009).
As inventors of the Error Enhancement method and owners of its intellectual property rights, Bioxtreme is the first to introduce the Error Enhancement technology to the neurorehabilitation market.